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14 (7), 702–708. J. Hered. The record derives from WCSP (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name (record 443751) with original publication details: Fl. Primary responses to salt stress in a halophyte, smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel.). Atlantic cordgrass in language. 6.5 (Peakall and Smouse, 2012). Mar. denseflower cordgrass . 25 (5), 425–444. Mo. We thank Dr. Francisco Sánchez-Bayo (The University of Sydney), Dr. Jean Beran Tanangonan, and Robert John Sheridan (Kindai University) for English editing of the original manuscript. doi: 10.1007/s10530-016-1128-z, Bernik, B. M., Li, H., Blum, M. J. Sci. Genetic analysis of cpDNA revealed that all S. alterniflora populations in Japan had a single haplotype (haplotype C4) (Figure 2, Table 1). Figure 4 Population structures based on the microsatellite mutation among the genes sampled from Spartina alterniflora populations in Japan using Bayesian estimation. is an intertidal grass that was introduced from the eastern United States in 1955 (Partridge 1987), and is now established from North Cape to Gisborne in the North Island of New Zealand. Available at: http://www2.unil.ch/popgen/softwares/fstat.htm (Accessed March 18, 2018). (2015). Reconstructing a century of Spartina alterniflora invasion with historical records and contemporary remote sensing. However, the FIS values of samples from the Umeda River (FIS = 0.01) did not deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (Table 1). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.00876.x, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, An, S. Q., Gu, B. H., Zhou, C. F., Wang, Z. S., Deng, Z. F., Zhi, Y. Front. This is because Piry et al. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Here, we studied the effects of invasion and ecological replacement using S. apetala on soil organic carbon fractions and stock on Qi’ao Island. “Evolutionary changes accompanying colonization in plants,” in Evolution today. However, the degree of genetic diversity and differentiation of introduced populations obviously varies for each invasion event (e.g., Amsellem et al., 2000; McCauley et al., 2003; Provan et al., 2005). For polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the trnT–trnF region of cpDNA, two primer pairs were used: Tab A (5′-CAT TAC AAA TGC GAT GCT CT-3′) and Tab B (5′-TCT ACC GAT TTC GCC ATA TC-3′) targeting the trnT–trnL region; and Tab C (5′-CGA AAT CGG TAG ACG CTA CG-3′) and Tab F (5′-ATT TGA ACT GGT GAC ACG AG-3′) targeting the trnL–trnF region were used (Taberlet et al., 1991). PCR products were purified using NucleoSpin Extract II (Macherey–Nagel, Düren, Germany) and then were used as a template for the cycle sequencing reaction. Groups A, B, and D consisting of a single haplotype are shown in dark grey, black and light grey, respectively. Therefore, the most likely invasion route may have been the arrival through a transport vehicle (i.e., stowaway) (Hulme et al., 2008). The genotype diversity (g) was extremely high at 0.93 ± 0.12 in samples from the Atlantic coast of the U.S. (native range), and similar tendencies were also found in other regions where S. alterniflora invaded (Table 1). Uses . Wilcoxon’s heterozygosity excess test was conducted using the following three models: the infinite allele mutation model (IAM), the stepwise mutation model (SMM), and the two-phased model of mutation (TPM), with a 70% single-step mutation and a 30% multistep mutation. the Atlantic coast of the United States) (Blum et al., 2007) and the introduced (China) or invaded (i.e., the Pacific coast of the U.S. and other some East Asian countries, such as Taiwan and Hong Kong) regions (Scholz et al., 2009; Guo et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2016). (2019). Les, D. H., R. R. Haynes, and A. Novelo-Retana. Symbols are as follows: rhomboid, populations in Umeda River (Aichi); square, in Oono River (southern Kumamoto); triangle, in Shirakawa River (northern Kumamoto); cross, in Tsuboi River (northern Kumamoto). Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen. Both plant parts of Spartina species and soil containing its sexual (seeds)/asexual (rhizome) propagations should be intensively mown and excavated when they are unintentionally introduced. 28 (17), 4012–4027. Within the region of its origin, haplotype C4 was widely observed in the Atlantic coast of the U.S. Also, this haplotype was the most dominant in the East Asian countries where S. alterniflora has been introduced intentionally (China, see An et al., 2007) or unintentionally (Taiwan and Hong Kong e.g., Scholz et al., 2009; Guo et al., 2015). Contributed by: USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program . Also, Blum et al. (2001). Understanding invasion history: genetic structure and diversity of two globally invasive plants and implications for their management. Grass family (Poaceae) Download PDF version formatted for print (311 KB) **NOTE: Smooth cordgrass is native to coastal states of eastern and southern U.S. Therefore, these results reveal that the founder effect might have occurred in Japanese S. alterniflora population. Conserv. Axis 1 and Axis 2 account for 41.2% and 23.3% of the variance, respectively. Since the cause of a lower genetic diversity among invasive Spartina species is of great interest, we discuss below the reason why S. alterniflora populations had lower genetic diversity when invading Japan. Our website has detected that you are using an outdated insecure browser that will prevent you from using the site. 0.6.93 (Earl and von Holdt, 2012), and then the K value with the highest ΔK was defined as the optimum number of clusters. 261–284 in Felder, D.L. The sample collection was carried out following the method in Blum et al. Bioinformatics 28 (19), 2537–2539. It hybridizes with S. maritima in Europe, with S. pectinata in Massachusetts, and with S. foliosa in California. Salinity is one of the most serious abiotic stresses affecting crop productivity worldwide. Mol. 9 (4), 443–455. On the other hand, low g values were found in samples from the Shirakawa River (g = 0.33) and Guangdong province in China (g = 0.32), where almost all analyzed samples had the same genotype. Eds. Change Biol. S. alterniflora, along with other Spartina was initially seen by many coastal engineers as a species that could be used to create natural erosion control barriers.S. Alaska Spartina Prevention, Detection and Response Plan (Juneau, AK: National Marine Fisheries Service Alaska Region). Taiwania 54 (2), 168–174. This study will elucidate whether actual invasion route of S. alterniflora into Japan was derived from the region of origin (i.e., primary introduction) or from a secondary introduction via introduced regions. Mol. In addition, serious ecological impacts of Spartina species on native aquatic ecosystems through competitive exclusion (Goss-Custard and Moser, 1988; Wan et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2009; Morgan and Systma, 2010) and changes in community and trophic structures (Simenstad and Thom, 1995; Levin et al., 2006; Bortolus et al., 2015) were found due to their expansion. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on the abundance and community of meiofauna in a subtropical wetland. 17, 1105–1109. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Mitsch, W. J., Jorgensen, S. A. FSTAT (version 2.9.3), a program to estimate and test gene diversity and fixation indices (Lausanne, Switzerland: Lausanne University). Quick facts. The East Asian countries are one of the largest supply sources on young shellfish and seedlings for cultivation in tidal flats of Japan (Okoshi, 2007), and thus the contamination of multiple species of organisms is often observed with the imports. (1991). Res. 2.3.4 (Pritchard et al., 2000) was used for this analysis. Agric. 15 (5), 822–830. The findings revealed that when compared the amount of trade between the Yatsushiro Port (southern Kumamoto), which includes the Oono River and the U.S. ($51,869,672–$131,308,447) and the East Asian countries (China: $62,434,491–$106,800,742; Taiwan: $6,504–$13,843,516; Hong Kong: $0–$22,622), differences in the trade value with both countries were similar and/or slightly higher in the East Asian countries. YM, MT, and YI analyzed the data. Reise, K.; Olenin, S.; Thieltges, D.W. (2006). doi: 10.1073/pnas.032477999, Schaal, B. Monospecific stands grow in low intertidal areas. Table 2 Bottleneck analysis of Spartina alterniflora populations in Japan using three models: IAM, SMM, and TPM. (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.06.007, Keywords: biological invasion, chloroplast DNA, founder effect, genetic structure, microsatellite, secondary introduction, smooth cordgrass, trade history, Citation: Maebara Y, Tamaoki M, Iguchi Y, Nakahama N, Hanai T, Nishino A and Hayasaka D (2020) Genetic Diversity of Invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Records and contemporary remote sensing detecting recent reductions in the DNA Data of! Marine invasive species, aquatic plants pose serious threats to local biodiversity ecosystem!: //www.env.go.jp/nature/intro/2outline/files/siteisyu_list_e.pdf ( Accessed April 16, 2020 ) 6 ), in statistical MEGA... And Smouse, 2012 ) shows attributed rates of change in the numbers of dunlin, Calidris alpina, in... The increase of nitrogen content was one of the optimum number of clusters based on the west coast of haplotypes! 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