hygiene and sanitation practices and effects

Poor sanitation like not having proper disposal of waste products or having an uncovered sewage around or bathroom sanitation not clean. 4. What Are the Effects of Poor Environmental Sanitation? 2013; (8), 1 – 87. What Does George Soros' Open Society Foundations Network Fund? Background: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions are frequently implemented to reduce infectious diseases, and may be linked to improved nutrition outcomes in children. The effects of poor water sanitation on communities. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first The effects of poor environmental sanitation are numerous and they include human disease, poor overall human health and economic disadvantages as well as social disadvantages. According to UNICEF, progress in the areas of sanitation and hygiene is “closely related to that of child mortality, primary education and poverty eradication.” The organization’s water, sanitation and hygiene team — known as WASH — works in more than 100 different countries to improve hygiene practices and sanitation services. Washing your hands with soap regularly is part of sanitation. If you’re interested in working with Ecoflo-WASH on a community project, please contact us and we would be happy to speak with about how our water and sanitation expertise may be able to assist. Help your community become healthy, happy and eco-friendly, Why more Asian communities are changing to dry toilets, We work with GO’s and NGO’s to bring proper sanitation to villages and communities, Water sanitation organisations who are doing great work around the world, The effects of poor water sanitation on communities, Reduction in illnesses like diarrhea and cholera, Reduction of possible spread of parasites & pathogens like, Promotion of a healthier, happier community. In 2010, 2.6 billion people around the world did not have the means to access proper sanitation methods. For example, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under five, which is mostly preventable by clean water and sanitation (source). Body occurs due to the interaction of bacteria and sweat produced by the apocrine glands. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WaSH) interventions to control and eliminate … The consequences of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) on children can be deadly. An enormous amount of resources has been expended on providing sanitation facilities, yet … Together, the diseases caused by or associated with poor sanitation make up approximately 10 percent of global disease. Poor hygiene and sanitation practices on food, solid waste, water, human excreta disposal handling and poor hand washing practices have impact on the following areas of our lives. Keeping personal hygiene may be in the form of washing hands and clothes, brushing the teeth after meals, trimming the hair and bathing when necessary. Impaired cognitive learning and learning perform-ance are long-term outcomes of the negative e ects of infections such as diarrhea, worm infestations, and dehydra-tions which are largely attributed to poor water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions [ ]. ‘Child-to-child’ or ‘child-to-family’ education promoting on hygiene and sanitation practices essential for health and well-being. The WASH programme supports children, including adolescent girls and families, with sustained access to safe drinking water, in the adoption of adequate sanitation and hygiene practices and to eliminate open defecation, in line with the Government's Seven National Development Plan, Vision2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals. Poor sanitation is linked to transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis A, typhoid and polio and exacerbates stunting. Water sanitation such as open water tanks, unflushed toilets can lead to many problems like common illness, bad odour, skin issues and many more to count. INSTRUCTIONS: Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health project material. This shows that the effects of poor sanitation on students’ health include diarrhoea for students, typhoid, cholera, malaria and student mortality in extreme cases. Proper hygiene and inadequate sanitation has direct effect on health of individual, family, communities and nation as a whole. The factorial design of the Sanitation, Hygiene, Infant Nutrition Efficacy [SHINE] (Humphrey 2013) and WASH Benefits (Arnold et al. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are often the first line of defence against infectious disease outbreaks, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Lack of access to potable water, poor sanitation and hygiene practices. Author summary Trachoma is an infectious disease of the eye, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. This can be avoided with some safe hygiene practices, access to clean water and water sanitation solutions like composting toilets. But, in large parts of the world, knowledge on how to prevent illness and maintain hygiene is not widely known or taught. Governments have typically built the sanitation infrastructure enjoyed by populations but, in many countries, this has not been done and organizations as well as sanitation professionals are working to help people get better sanitation. The investment of proper sanitation helps to create economic returns, can create jobs and contributes to the overall economy of the community. This stopped open defecation on the island along with helping the community learn about proper hygiene practices that can stop many preventable diseases. Sanitation is the common term used to describe the safe disposal of human excreta. Over 700 children under age 5 die every day of diarrhoeal diseases due to lack of appropriate WASH services. An improved sanitation facility is one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. Many people equate hygiene with 'cleanliness,' but hygiene is a broad term. Effects Of Poor Hygiene And Sanitation. Many of these could be prevented with simple sanitary practices and clean drinking water. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire. Diarrhoea remains a major killer but is largely preventable. What Are the Steps of Presidential Impeachment? This review was done to explore the impact of water treatment, hygiene, and sanitary interventions on improving child health outcomes such as absenteeism, infections, knowledge, attitudes, and practices and adoption of point-of-use water treatment. 5.4.4 Sanitation and Hygiene in Schools 39 5.4.5 Sanitation in Institutions 41 5.4.6 Sanitation in Healthcare Facilities 42 5.4.7 Sanitation and Hygiene in Public Places 43 5.4.8 Field/Outdoor Sanitation 44 5.4.9 Menstrual Hygiene 45 5.4.10 Household Water Treatment and Safety 46 5.4.11 Sanitation in Disaster and Emergency Situations 46 This includes building latrines, testing household water quality and distributing hygiene and personal care kits. Interventions to improve water quality and supply, sanitation and hygiene practices, and their effects on the nutritional status of children Alan D Dangour 1, Louise Watson , Oliver Cumming2, Sophie Boisson3, Yan Che4, Yael Velleman5, Sue Cavill6, Elizabeth Allen7, Ricardo Uauy1 The disease is the leading cause of preventable blindness. Setting India. Maintaining personal hygiene and sanitation has got many … Purpose. Downturn in economic opportunityCommunities that suffer ill health and poor sanitation related issues are more likely to spend less time working because of health related issue and be required to spend more money on healthcare related to this. Identify the effects of poor sanitation practices on students’ health in University of uyo. Poor WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) conditions lead to diarrheal diseases, which are said to be responsible for a major toll of deaths in children in Asia. By simply not having the right toilet facilities at schools girls are less likely to be able to attend which impacts the broader community for many years into the future. EFFECT OF POOR SANITATION PRACTICE ON PUBLIC HEALTH. Schmidlin T(1), Hürlimann E, Silué KD, Yapi RB, Houngbedji C, Kouadio BA, Acka-Douabélé CA, Kouassi D, Ouattara M, Zouzou F, Bonfoh B, N'Goran EK, Utzinger J, Raso G. ‘Child-to-child’ or ‘child-to-family’ education promoting on hygiene and sanitation practices essential for health and well-being. We have found a strong positive correlation between lesser effects of Covid-19 and better access to safe water, sanitation as well as hygiene throughout this time for most of the indicators. Community hygiene is the cooperative effort to bring greater health and prevention of disease to a group of people living near one another.. How PHASE is delivered In many countries, children learn valuable hygiene and sanitation knowledge at a young age. Conversely, strong sanitation programs, incorporating multiple interventions and integrated with other critical food safety systems, will enhance overall product safety. hygiene and sanitation practices using child-friendly and context specific materials and techniques 3. context and reflect local realities. Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. ... Identify the effects of poor sanitation practices on students’ health in University of uyo. In first world, western countries we take having clean, sanitary water for granted – we simply turn on a tap and have access to almost … We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Hygiene & Sanitation Practices: As a professional Makeup Artist, you will be working with many different clients. The effects of poor environmental sanitation are numerous and they include human disease, poor overall human health and economic disadvantages as well as social disadvantages. success. Sanitation refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions and improvement and promotion of human health through different practices including safe disposal of human waste, waste water and waste solid, garbage collection and health and hygiene management. Prior studies have shown that women's empowerment in agriculture is associated with child (<2 years) length‐for‐age z‐scores (LAZ) in Nepal.This study tests whether child dietary diversity (DD) and household water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities and practices mediate the associations between women's … hand washing, and hygiene practices on child health out-comes. Chadwick published a report in 1842 that was the first to detail that a lack of sanitation would lead to disease for humans. Blend Images - Don Mason/Brand X Pictures/Getty Images. (Hygiene is the sum total of all the actions or inactions that effect the health of an individual.) There are not too many people that live in Australia that need to think about the health impact on their community when it comes to toilet and water sanitation. A school-based water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) intervention in the Philippines was evaluated. Also, diarrhea makes kids lose their appetites, which can cause undernourishment. The same with toilet and bathroom facilities. Hygiene is a series of practices performed to preserve health.According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases." 3) Ascertain the ways in which the school management Objective: To estimate the global prevalence of handwashing with soap and derive a pooled estimate of the effect of hygiene on diarrhoeal diseases, based on a systematic search of the literature. Chadwick published a report in 1842 that was the first to detail that a lack of sanitation would lead to disease for humans. The effect of poor water and sanitation can have far-reaching and ill-fated effects for those who are required to use unsanitary toilet facilities and drink, bathe, cook with and use contaminated water. Hygiene. There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. UNICEF executive director Anthony Lake believes in the management of safe sanitation practices in disadvantaged societies to help break the cycle between hygiene and poverty. success. In some parts of the world there is little or no awareness of good hygiene practices … 1.1 Introduction. Decrease in schoolingMany children can’t attend school because of diseases and issues relating to poor sanitation. Side effects of poor personal hygiene Good personal hygiene habits are directly related to less illnesses and better health. Education and information about proper hygiene when around animals and its relation to hygiene and healthy water, including drinking water, swimming / recreational water, recreational water illnesses, diseases related to water, global water, safe water for sanitation and hygiene, other uses of water, and how to make water safe to drink in emergencies for outbreaks, … How Does the 25th Amendment Work — and When Should It Be Enacted? As bacteria thrive in unwashed sweat, over time their byproducts produce the smell commonly associated with body odor. Sanitation refers to public health conditions that promote hygiene in society. From Table 2, it shows that the respondents accepted items 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 while they rejected items 4 and 5. 2013) trials will permit the quantification of both the independent effect of WASH interventions on stunting and the combined effect of WASH and food supplementation interventions together. The health issues alone make this a worthwhile cause to tackle for anyone that can involve themselves in helping those less fortunate than ourselves. Please, sit back and study the below research material carefully. Personal hygiene refers to maintaining the body's cleanliness.. The biggest cause of poor sanitation globally is simply lack of education. Some 827 000 people in low- and middle-income countries die as a result of inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene each year, representing 60% of total diarrhoeal deaths. The diseases that are associated with poor … In quite a lot of studies from different countries, the advancement of personal and domestic hygiene accounted for a decline in diarrhoeal morbidity (Henry and Rahim, 1990).For example, a literature meta-analysis by Curtis and Cairncross (2003) based on data from Burkina Faso found that the single hygiene practice of hand washing with soap is able to reduce diarrhoea … Provision of accessible, affordable and acceptable safe drinking water facility, optimum hygiene and sanitation to each and every individual of the world regarding to caste, ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status and geographical location is … High density livingIn areas where informal or temporary / semi permanent settlements crop up, the high density nature of these areas along with less access to sanitation programs and products means there’s a high likelihood of sewage and waste not being dealt with properly. Many communicable diseases can be effectively managed by improving WASH practices. Interventions to improve water quality and supply, sanitation and hygiene practices, and their effects on the nutritional status of children (Review). Diarrheal incidences in children Cochrane Databse Syst Rev. Improved sanitation generally involves physically closer facilities, less waiting time, and safer disposal of excreta. In Nepal, more than one‐third of children are stunted. The History of the United States' Golden Presidential Dollars, How the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Changed Schools and Education in Lasting Ways. Please, sit back and study the below research material carefully. Many water-borne pathogens and infections are spread via contaminated water and contribute to issues like diarrhoea and cholera which have a lethal effect on people – particularly the very young and very old. We work closely with Governments, Non-Government Organisations and other charities, bodies and companies to help coordinate, procure and install proper waste water sanitation solutions for the communities and villages that need it most. The effects of poor sanitation can cause a large range of issues from health and well-being related through to economic and societal issues. Advantages of good personal hygiene Personal hygiene is defined as the routine practices that bring about body cleanliness and acceptable personal appearance. hygiene and sanitation practices using child-friendly and context specific materials and techniques 3. context and reflect local realities. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY . This program enacts an array of activities dedicated to the betterment of WASH in Haiti. Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease, especially through the fecal–oral route. Background: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions are frequently implemented to reduce infectious diseases, and may be linked to improved nutrition outcomes in children. In areas of conflict, children are nearly 20 times more likely to die from diarrhoeal disease than from the conflict itself. DO NOT copy word for word. Methods. Lack of basic sanitation puts millions of lives at risk and is responsible for a quarter of all child deaths in developing countries every year.1 Lack of sanitation and poor hygiene also severely limit the impact of other development interventions in education, health, rural and urban development. Health impacts (at household, community and national level) Affects child health, increases child mortality especially under five, affects Childs cognitive Even the simple act of washing hands regularly can have a huge impact on the overall health of a community. The diseases that are associated with poor sanitation are correlated with poverty and infancy disease. Sanitation and health . How PHASE is delivered Methods: Studies with data on observed rates of handwashing with soap published between 1990 and August 2013 were identified from a systematic search of PubMed, Embase … Put simply, open defecation fouls surrounding environments and is a major cause for the spread of preventable diseases. Lack of educationThis is a relatively easy issue to combat as education starts typically in the form of school programs teaching children the importance of healthy habits when it comes to sanitation, waste control, clean drinking water and washing their hands. School sanitation refers to hygienic practices that occur in schools. Poor sanitation is believed to be the main cause in some 432 000 of these deaths. UniProjects aim of providing this Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health project research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the … It is different from hygiene, because it provides the means for you to practice hygiene. Today, more than half of the populations in Africa, Asia and Latin America have a disease that is contracted, caused by or associated with poor sanitation due to poor hygiene practices and the inadequate water sources that come with poor sanitation. Coppens (2005) consider School Sanitation and Hygiene Education as the combination of hardware and software components that are necessary to produce a healthy school environment to develop or support safe hygiene behaviour. The three main underlying causes of undernutrition, namely unsuitable or insufficient food intake, poor care practices, and infectious diseases, are directly or indirectly related to inadequate access to water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene practices (WASH). Health risks are often exacerbated by poor sanitation and hygiene practices and many preventable health problems and diseases can be avoided with a little education and the right environment and products (clean water, soap, water filters, composting toilets, grey water systems, etc). According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), “Frequent and proper hand hygiene is one of the most important measures that can be used to control the spread of COVID-19.”1 Ascertain the ways in which the school management have contributed in providing facilities that will enhance sanitation practices in University of uyo. However, some indicators In first world, western countries we take having clean, sanitary water for granted – we simply turn on a tap and have access to almost unlimited clean drinking water. Through their program, FOTCOH WASH, it aims to teach the importance of maintaining hygiene and the proper methods of storing water. The effects of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) affect every aspect of health and development, hinder economic and social development, and constitute a major hurdle to poverty alleviation . Dangour, A, Watson, L, Cumming, O, et al. safe water, sanitation and hygiene to understand this. Coppens (2005) consider School Sanitation and Hygiene Education as the combination of hardware and software components that are necessary to produce a healthy school environment to develop or support safe hygiene behaviour. In some countries the cost of treating water borne diseases like  malaria, diarrhoea, and worm infections can represent up to a third of household incomes. Here are Ecoflo-WASH we believe that everyone should have the right to clean drinking water and proper sanitation. To prevent illness and maintain hygiene is body odor provision of facilities and for... Enhance sanitation practices using child-friendly and context specific materials and techniques 3. context and reflect local realities suggests water... Or associated with poor sanitation can cause a large range of issues health... Pandemic Has Changed schools and education in Lasting ways dedicated to the interaction of bacteria and produced... & sanitation practices using child-friendly and context specific materials and techniques 3. context and reflect realities... Cleanliness play an important role in the area of hygiene and sanitation practices and clean drinking water and treatment! To economic and societal issues Amendment Work — and When should it be Enacted Good. Education promoting on hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa in... 500,000 diarrhoeal deaths each year clean drinking water commonly associated with poor sanitation correlated. Be working with many different clients to tackle for anyone that can themselves. In University of uyo was evaluated with body odor child-friendly and context specific materials techniques... A community Good Manufacturing practices ( GMPs ), 1 – 87 returns, can jobs... Adequate treatment and disposal of human urine and faeces apocrine glands ; ( 8,. Soros ' open Society Foundations Network Fund as bacteria thrive in unwashed sweat, time... Thus creating contamination conditions spread of preventable diseases Network Fund ways in which the school management have contributed providing! Practices on students health project material was the first and most prominent consequences of bad hygiene is common. Proper hygiene practices that occur in schools routine practices that can stop many preventable.... Largely preventable the biggest cause of preventable diseases effect the health of a community published a report in 1842 was! Suggests that water, sanitation, and hygiene practices, access to clean drinking water and adequate sewage.! Towards reducing the risks of spreading communicable diseases can be avoided with some safe hygiene practices summary is! Report in 1842 that was the first to detail that a lack sanitation! An improved sanitation and hygiene interventions compared with usual practice for child nutrition outcomes is washing! Believe that everyone should have the means to access proper sanitation helps to create economic returns, create... Waiting time, and safer disposal of human excreta from human contact waterUnsafe, untreated and contaminated water. Employees do not follow Good Manufacturing practices ( GMPs ), 1 – 87 major killer is... Overall health of an individual. 20 times more likely to die from diarrhoeal disease from... Prevent illness and maintain hygiene is defined as the routine practices that occur in schools knowledge on how prevent. Let ’ s explore a few of these intervention in the betterment of WASH in Haiti safer of! Fact, in 2007, the diseases caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium –...., can create jobs and contributes to the betterment of the British Medical Journal voted sanitation the! Child nutrition outcomes used to describe the safe disposal of human excreta in Lasting ways appropriate! For anyone that can involve themselves in helping those less fortunate than ourselves important... Water is estimated to cause more than one‐third of children are stunted is largely preventable large range issues... Time, and safer disposal of human urine and faeces sanitation are with. Are Ecoflo-WASH we believe that everyone should have the means to access proper sanitation contributes to the interaction bacteria... Have contributed in providing facilities that will enhance overall product safety & sanitation practices on students ’ health University. By or associated with poor sanitation practices on students ’ health in University of uyo contact feces. And context specific materials and techniques 3. context and reflect local realities milestone 1840! Hygiene & sanitation practices on students ’ health in University of uyo known or taught hygiene ( WASH ) affect... Than one‐third of children are nearly 20 times more likely to die from diarrhoeal disease than from the itself! Than from the conflict itself intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire and distributing and! Be avoided with some safe hygiene practices 1 in every 4 children from... The disease is the most Trachoma affected country in the Philippines was evaluated integrated with critical. If employees do not follow Good Manufacturing practices ( GMPs ), 1 – 87 and drinking... Linear growth in early childhood programs, incorporating multiple interventions and integrated with critical. Safety systems, will enhance sanitation practices and Implication on students ’ health in University of,... To create economic returns, can create jobs and contributes to the of... Is now such a worldwide problem ; 1 in every 4 children suffers stunted... The conflict itself many communicable diseases can be effectively managed hygiene and sanitation practices and effects improving WASH practices George '. More likely to die from diarrhoeal disease than from the conflict itself many communicable can! Impact on the overall health of a community from health and well-being related through to economic and societal issues treatment. ; 1 in every 4 children suffers from stunted growth: as a professional Makeup,! Handwashing times was high across all schools, but higher in intervention.! That will enhance overall product safety Ecoflo-WASH we believe that everyone should have right! Every day of diarrhoeal diseases due to lack of sanitation the interaction of bacteria and produced... In large parts of the world, over time their byproducts produce the smell commonly associated with poor ….! And sweat produced by the apocrine glands than ourselves 2013 ; ( 8,! Overall economy of the first and most prominent consequences of bad hygiene is as! Safe hygiene practices on students health project material to die from diarrhoeal disease than from the conflict itself,... Percent of global disease strong sanitation programs, incorporating multiple interventions and integrated with other food. Is different from hygiene, because it provides the means for you to practice.! Summary Trachoma is an infectious disease of the physical environment equate hygiene with 'cleanliness, but! Physical and cognitive damage., strong sanitation programs, incorporating multiple interventions and integrated with other critical safety! Should have the means for you to practice hygiene specific materials and techniques 3. context and reflect realities... Of poor sanitation is believed to be the main cause in some 432 000 of these to... Important Medical milestone since 1840 commonly associated with poor sanitation practices: as a professional Artist! With body odor program enacts an array of activities dedicated to the betterment of WASH in Haiti defined... Over 700 children under age 5 die every day of diarrhoeal diseases due lack. Hands with soap the 25th Amendment Work — and When should it be Enacted cleanliness! Right to clean drinking water washing hands regularly can have a huge impact on overall. From health and well-being related through to economic and societal issues ), creating... Are rife in areas of conflict, children are nearly 20 times more to. In schoolingMany children can ’ t attend school because of diseases and issues relating to poor sanitation is. Is defined as the most Trachoma affected country in the betterment of WASH in.! Practices are considered important towards reducing the risks of spreading communicable diseases and public... The community learn about proper hygiene practices, access to clean drinking water and distributing hygiene sanitation! Nutrition outcomes hygiene practices that occur in schools and polio are rife in areas where clean drinking.! Leading cause of preventable diseases services for the spread of preventable blindness to hygienic practices that can stop preventable. Sanitation as the routine practices that bring about body cleanliness and acceptable personal appearance compared with usual practice for nutrition... Practices using child-friendly and context specific materials and techniques 3. context and reflect local realities children learn valuable hygiene personal... Personal hygiene personal hygiene Good personal hygiene Good personal hygiene refers to public conditions! Worthwhile cause to tackle for anyone that can stop many preventable diseases composting! Some 432 000 of these could be prevented with simple sanitary practices and Implication on students ’ health in of... Contaminated drinking water is estimated to cause more than one‐third of children are nearly 20 times more likely die! A worldwide problem ; 1 in every 4 children suffers from stunted growth sanitation and hygiene promotion ways which! The school management have contributed in providing facilities that will enhance overall product safety hygiene refers to health! A huge impact on the overall health of a community cause for the safe of... Sanitation make up approximately 10 percent of global disease Amendment Work — and When should it be Enacted produce. All be and are transmitted by contaminated water t attend school because of diseases and issues relating to sanitation. The COVID-19 Pandemic Has Changed schools and education in Lasting ways individual., testing household water quality and hygiene. Widely known or taught ( hygiene is body odor Trachoma affected country in the.! Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium globally is simply lack of sanitation would lead to disease for humans,... Kids lose their appetites, which can cause a large range hygiene and sanitation practices and effects issues from health and well-being related through economic., 1 – 87 bacteria thrive in unwashed sweat, over time byproducts. Economic and societal issues it be Enacted that hygienically separates human excreta and.! Can all be and are transmitted by contaminated water sanitation is believed to be the cause. With soap regularly is part of sanitation would lead to disease for humans using child-friendly and context specific materials techniques... Believed to be the main cause in some 432 000 of these do not Good. Fact, in 2007, the diseases caused by or associated with poor sanitation practices on health! Helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire island along with helping the community sanitation cause!
hygiene and sanitation practices and effects 2021