The Greeks also made advancements in art, drama, poetry and philosophy. It is called the Peloponnesian League because many of the city-states were located on the Peloponnesus. The causes of the Peloponnesian War. We infer this not from Aristodemus or from other texts of the ‘Ephorus tradition’ but, again, from Diodorus. The Greek victories over the Persians in the fifth century before the Common Era led to an expansion of Greek culture we now call the Golden Age of Greece." Athens and Sparta were both able to rely upon a number of allied city-states, which meant that the war spread throughout Greece. Finally, in 431 B.C., Sparta declared war on Athens. Naturally, we have the option of trusting Thucydides’ mastery and thus gratefully accepting his lesson about the causes of the war and its historical necessity. Corinth holds the least responsibility, as its interference in Athens’ and Sparta’s affairs mainly contributed to the short term causes of the war, not the long term ones. Please enter the Email address that you used to register for CHS. “Ephorus und Diodor über den Ausbruch des peloponnesischen Krieges.”. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 Plague breaks out in Athens, which kills nearly 1/3 of the population (Hale, 324). Modern critics rarely praise Ephorus’ historiography. Thucydides served as an Athenian commander in northern Greece in the early years of the war. Democracy, Imperialism, Greed, Patriotism… several of these acted as variables on the road to the Peloponnesian War, but fear was a guiding lantern. The Peloponnesian War was prolonged to an ... it is well to give the grounds alleged by either side which led to the dissolution of the treaty and the breaking out of the war. This consideration leads us to understand a second underlying message: Pericles wanted the war, and he succeeded in pursuing it because of pre-existing tension between Athens and Sparta. The Peloponnesian War weakened Greek civilization militarily and economically. Megarian Decree "No Megarian shall stand/ on sea or on land/ and from our markets they're utterly banned!" There are two dominant factors that led to Sparta's victory over Athens in the Peloponnesian War. In so doing, Ephorus conformed to the fundamental methodological principle that he had proposed for his own research (διακριβοῦν εἰώθαμεν, ὅταν ἦι τι τῶν πραγμάτων ἢ παντελῶς ἀπορούμενον ἢ ψευδῆ δόξαν ἔχον, “I am accustomed to examine such matters as these with precision, whenever any matter is either altogether doubtful or falsely interpreted.” Translation by H. L. Jones, modified). Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. The Athenians and Peloponnesians began the war by breaking the Thirty Years Peace made after the conquest of Euboia. 10. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. In recent years, Tim Rood has argued that the aitiai es to phaneron are deeply related to the alethestate prophasis, that they are, in fact, part of the same aetiological system. Curiously enough, Ephorus—the historian who has been universally credited as having made History the servant of Rhetoric—gives us one of the clearest statements in historiography on the dramatic damages that can result when rhetorical persuasiveness and demagogy enter into politics. Another cause was the fight for the road to Sicily, one of the granaries of the old world, road controlled by the states of the Peloponnesian League. From 350 - 338 BCE, the kingdom of Macedon moved in from the north and conquered much of Greece, taking advantage of weak and disunited city-states. Thucydides mentiones superficial causes of the war, but what is the truest cause? “La Storia di Eforo e le Elleniche di Teopompo.” In, Robertson, N. D. 1980. Spartans. The Center for Hellenic Studies | 3100 Whitehaven Street, NW. How did the Peloponnesian War lead to the downfall of Ancient Greece? The Peloponnesian War. On land Athens knew that it was no match for the mighty Spartan soldiers. 430 BC- Second year of the Peloponnesian War. Services. Sparta’s society was a 400 year old stratified, militaristic system that bread men for war. Here we find, together with the two quotations from Aristophanes (, “One might say Persuasion rested on his [Pericles’] lips; such charm he’d bring, and alone of all the speakers in his list’ners left his sting.” (Translation by C. H. Oldfather). As the preeminent Athenian historian, Thucydides, wrote in his influential History of the Peloponnesian War, "The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable." Classical Greek civilization did not have a central government or ruling empire but was instead made up of small, independent communities called city-states. The two powers struggled to agree on their respective spheres of influence, absent Persia's influence. Wiki User Answered . credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. How did Sparta win the Peloponnesian War? Furthermore, Ephorus’ use of information drawn from ancient comedy was subtler than it is usually considered to be. What was an advantage of Sparta during the Peloponnesian War? Pericles dies (Hale, 324). Obviously, Pericles would have had no opportunity to realize his plan had there not been an ultimatum from Sparta and, consequently, a public debate on the Megarian Decree. 462 BCE) to have been a negative turning point in the fifth century. Among Thucydides’ critics is Karl Julius Beloch, who notes that the difficulties experienced by Pericles and his party in the preceding years had a direct impact on the outbreak of war. Following Sparta's victory in the war, Greece became weakened, which allowed for the rise to power of the Kingdom of Macedon and later, Alexander the Great. The Peloponnesian War was underway once Sparta and its allies moved to challenge Athens. La guerra del Peloponneso nella storiografia greca del quarto secolo a.C.” In, Vogel, F. 1889. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Potidaea. The Peloponnesian War was a war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta—the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.). The problem is war itself as a corrupting entity - the more war you fight the worse this war becomes 'proves a rough master' - a progressive decline in moral standards throughout the war as seen in Thucydides - is this a change in practice of warfare or a change in how people percieve war His on the scene reporting was the first of its kind and has been used by historians and political theorists for the last twenty four hundred years. 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