If mistakes were tenacious, then there would be very few singular readings because these mistakes would’ve been passed down to each successive manuscript. That’s a bad idea. A highway for our God. , (Note: I started this article for background to an article I’m working on about the best Bible translation, but it grew well beyond that. Even so, the oldest manuscripts, being of the Alexandrian text-type, are the most favored, and the critical text has an Alexandrian disposition. Virgin Birth NASB KJV NKJV ESV, Not a scholar but just a few thoughts I’m truly awed that someone created a single sentence for marketing that has echoed through the centuries. Make straight in the desert Why dismiss the Gospels just because they are a different text type? The foundational premise for the Confessional Position is quite different than the other two theories. However, the earliest manuscripts that provide distinguishable readings date to about 200 AD (e.g. (The text was essentially unchanged in the intervening 26th edition, which had essentially the same text as the third edition of the UBS Greek New Testament.) The Byzantine text type does have some very early witnesses, (in papyri from the 200s and 300s) but these often contain Byzantine readings mixed in with the other text types. Medium = Byzantine Text type, characterized by near-identical form over 1000+ years, and most manuscripts are of this type, Long/paraphrase = Western Text type, characterized by its “love of paraphrase” is like the “uncontrolled popular text” of Homer. There are variations within each family, but overall their Textual Variants share a familial linkage with other members of their family. A transmissional approach to textual criticism is not unparalleled. Not only do Homer’s works have more manuscript evidence available than any other piece of classical literature (though far less than that available for the NT), but Homer also is represented by MSS from a wide chronological and geographical range, from the early papyri through the uncials and Byzantine-era minuscules. The Codex Vaticanus gets its name from the place where it was stored, the Vatican library. Probably the most balanced view of the Vaticanus scribe is found in the quote below, in an article published to respond to someone claiming the Vaticanus Scribe made very few errors. Despite this, the Critical Text of the New Testament remains virtually unchanged from ~140 years ago. They also said of where those two manuscripts agreed: “No readings of אB can safely be rejected absolutely,”, Yes, they believed these two manuscripts were that important, and this understanding follows naturally if you believe their #1 rule that “earlier is better”. By the 5th generation, you can see that the number of manuscripts with errors outnumber the ones without errors nearly 2-1. Spoiler Alert: since learning some Greek, I recommend the NKJV and NASB depending on whether you prefer the Critical Text vs. the Textus Receptus and Majority Text. A vast number of early manuscripts were destroyed in the early persecutions of the Church. For, “no one can lay another foundation besides the one already laid, which is Jesus Christ”. The following is a quote from the (excellent) blog The Text of the Gospels, doing a comparison of Westcott & Hort’s original 1881 text (WH1881) to the modern NA27 (Nestle-Aland 27th edition) and NA28. With thousands of differences, how could anyone ever think that the differences would not make a real difference? They did have some very solid points! (I confess I skimmed through parts) He returned to the monastery some 15 years later, partially in hopes of recovering the manuscript. I’m going to re-quote something we looked at earlier. And I leave the discussion as to what is important and what is unimportant to the critics. Whether you count Bible translations based on the Critical Text vs Bible translations based on the Majority Text; or copies of the Greek Majority Text vs the Greek Critical Text, the Critical Text becomes the clear winner. You yourself said “her own” was added for ‘clarity’, and that changes the meaning, without textual basis. Thanks again! However, the Confessional Position argues that it doesn’t matter if God inspired the Scriptures if He didn’t preserve them too. God “will keep them” (His words) by setting “him” (the man) in safety like He said He would in verse 5. In the second edition, he changed the title to “Novum Testamentum omne“, and used an additional manuscript for the compilation. The Textus Receptus does not equal the so-called majority text, that is, the text reconstructed by taking at any place of variation the reading found in most manuscripts. Manuscripts repeatedly proven to have incorrect readings loose respectability. It’s simplicity itself, but under-girding that simplicity is profound sophistication. Ironically, Westcott & Hort recognized this too. You’re copying it down, The mistakes which the original transcriber made are of perpetual recurrence. In so many places, Jesus is called the Glory of the Lord. (Source for this quote is: “Homer: The Origins and the Transmission“, by Thomas W. Allen), 22. We will be ignoring this segment and focusing on their more genial and reasonable counterparts.). But the Romans 16:25-27 and 14:24-26 text are identical. It always means two. Coming from a KJV is the preserved words of God or as close as anyone has it in English AND holding a “confessional” position in regard to that, I find it refreshing to discover a critic who concedes and is open about the KJV’s unique eclecticism in its origins as opposed to the usual inaccurate treatment of it as wholly Majority Text as opposed to mainly Majority Text with reasoned deviations. Because I’m The WEB’s “over her own head” makes it sound like the woman must listen to no one but herself because she is under her own authority. (34 readings were changed from the NA27 to the NA28). EDIT: I finally got around to writing an article on the topic, which you can read here: Does 1 Corinthians 11 Require Women To Wear “Head Coverings”. The longer reading is found in the Majority Text, but not in the Critical text. That begs the question: “Where did it come from?” The answer is in the name: it comes from a (man-made) confession of faith. Persecution under Marcus Aurelius (161-180). These divisions aren’t hard and fast, but rather provide a framework to talk about the different Textual Variants. It has significant downsides which we’ll look at after the “pro” side. 19 Whoever therefore breaks one of the least of these commandments, and teaches men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever does and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. Or to put it another way: The Majority Text method within textual criticism could be called the “democratic” method. You will preserve him from this generation forever. The mathematical model for the Byzantine Majority Text relies on an assumption. To this I reply, “I think Luke knows that if he is writing a story about seven guys, he would not use a word which clearly means two guys.”. Wow, great article. (Also known as the “Authorized Version”, or “AV” for short.). Double for all her sins.”. If you pick up any popular Bible (except the KJV and NKJV) it’s almost certainly translated primarily from the Alexandrian text type. Nevertheless the Hortian text has not been overthrown. Thus there were places in which it is unclear what the Greek basis of the New Testament was. Only WEB has a 14:24-26. It’s possible, but definitely not certain. Praise ye the LORD. The AV translators relied heavily upon the work of William Tyndale and other editions of the English Bible. Remember their #1 rule was “Older is better”. In context, Jesus is simply saying that the law wouldn’t end until “all is fulfilled”. By any conceivable metric (except age), Codex Sinaiticus is one of the worst manuscripts that we’ve found. Almost all of the oldest manuscripts we have are of the Alexandrian text type, probably due to the climate in the location where they are typically found (Alexandrian is in Egypt, and their dry climate is ideal for preservation.) Westcott & Hort believed the Byzantine text type was a combination of the Alexandrian and Western text types. F.H.A. VIII. This are easy to explain variants when you see how these words are spelled in the Greek, so here are the first three words of the verse in each Textual Variant: Context tells us that nēpioi (little children) can’t be intended, and since the previous word begins with “n”, it’s easy to see how the mistake was made (doubling the “n”). Answer: The Critical Text is a Greek text of the New Testament that draws from a group of ancient Greek manuscripts and their variants in an attempt to preserve the most accurate wording possible. Syriac is a dialect, or group of dialects, of Eastern Aramaic, originating in and around Assuristan (Persian ruled Assyria). In fact, it’s usually the first place I look for answers on questions relating to Textual Variants. Further, this can happen in smaller increments too. I know almost nothing about Latin, or I’d check. There are 7956 verses in the New Testament. The two relevant excerpts are below. Even those who love the manuscript will admit it has serious quality problems. The first document to be called “Textus Receptus was the 1633 printing of the Elzevir Greek New Testament, which was substantially identical to the 1565 version of Beza’s Greek New Testament. There is absolutely no support, whether Greek or English, to the contrary. The more difficult reading should be preferred. I haven’t spent much time researching it though, so it’s merely an “at a glance” opinion. I’ve copy/pasted the two rules that conflict just below: Westcott & Hort rule #9: Prefer readings in manuscripts that habitually contain better readings, which is more certain if it’s also an older manuscript and if it doesn’t contain combinations of other variations (as in rule #3). I just bought a World English Bible.”This is where the World English Bible (also known as the WEB Bible) comes to the rescue. It’s by no means perfect and certainly has flaws, but overall it’s quite good. The Elzevir 1633 text promised just that in their marketing. Tischendorf himself might not have been sure. ( ‘her own’ are supplied and not in the original but like the KJV and the NKJV versions makes it clear that the authority or symbolic authority is placed on or over the woman’s own head). They were left unused, so they lasted longer. Matthew 19:30 New King James Version (NKJV) A sad fact of history is that when Christians are persecuted, copies of the Bible are usually caught in the crossfire. I’m not a KJV only follower But the word of our God stands forever.”. While the Confessional Position holds no water, the Textus Receptus itself is a very good document. apologies…i left our highly “considered”, in my last sentence. When two copies disagree with each other, you have a variant in the text between two documents: this is (unsurprisingly) called a “Textual Variant”. They aren’t the only ones to say this either. And no matter how you read it, “both” never means “seven”. By an Alexandrian Church father’s own admission, manuscripts in Alexandria by 200 AD were already corrupt. Further, it means all the manuscript findings of the last 140+ years are given very little consideration in modern Bibles. Rather, decisions in textual criticism must be worked out afresh, passage by passage (the local principle). This brings us to one of the strongest arguments for the Majority Text theory: that scribes preferred to copy better manuscripts. One issue, a minor one, the majority of Greek manuscripts show the content of Romans 16:25-27 actually belongs in 14:24-26. The difference is insignificant because the number of transmission points from … Here’s Dan Wallace – arguably the most respected New Testament textual critic alive today – talking about one of our oldest manuscripts, specifically Codex Alexandrius. In about half of these instances, the Authorized Version translators appear to follow the earlier 1550 Greek Textus Receptus of Estienne. To be sure that’s not politically correct, but that’s what the passage is saying and the Bible is very consistent on this. What a stretch! My guess – and it’s only a guess – is that the Latin Vulgate had the plural (staves) and so the KJV translators went with that. Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.”. 20 He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you. )Click here to collapse the full list of the Aland rules of Textual Criticism. It certainly agrees with the Byzantine Majority Text quite well, and the differences are not typically very large (though certainly some are). The Critical text would invariably argue the point saying something like, “Well, you cant really know what the original manuscript written by the pen of Luke said”. 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