[47] The first rank of Persian infantry formations, the so-called 'sparabara', had no bows, carried larger wicker shields and were sometimes armed with longer spears. Athens came to the Ionians aid. [185] The Spartans, hearing of his behaviour, recalled Pausanias and tried him on charges of collaborating with the enemy. It is possible that the Athenians had attempted to negotiate with the Persians previously. The Greek world would go on to achieve great things, led by the city-state of Athens. [174] The Peloponnesians sailed home, but the Athenians remained to attack the Chersonesos, still held by the Persians. Darius died while preparing to march on Egypt, and the throne of Persia passed to his son Xerxes I. Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt, and very quickly resumed the preparations for the invasion of Greece. The first battles of this war brew up in 92 BCE when the Roman Republic battled with the Parthians. The Persian Empire would eventually be conquered by the Greeks under the leadership of Alexander the Great. Mardonius himself was then injured in a raid on his camp by a Thracian tribe, and after this he returned with the rest of the expedition to Asia. [76], The Ionian Revolt constituted the first major conflict between Greece and the Achaemenid Empire and represents the first phase of the Greco-Persian Wars. It culminated in Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon. For six days, the Persians attacked the walls, with losses on both sides; however, on the seventh day two reputable Eretrians opened the gates and betrayed the city to the Persians. [46], In the Greco-Persian wars both sides made use of spear-armed infantry and light missile troops. Furthermore, certain tyrants might develop an independent streak and have to be replaced. [18], More detail for the whole period is provided by Plutarch, in his biographies of Themistocles, Aristides and especially Cimon. So we will begin with an overview of the history of the Persian Wars. 18.During the 2nd Persian War a Spartan force of 300 held off the Persian army for 2 days at a place called Thermopylae 19.The Spartan leader who led the Greek army at Thermopylae was The Persians responded in 497 BC with a three-pronged attack aimed at recapturing the outlying areas of the rebellious territory,[67] but the spread of the revolt to Caria meant the largest army, under Darius, moved there instead. [80][82], The following year, having given clear warning of his plans, Darius sent ambassadors to all the cities of Greece, demanding their submission. Expansion of the Persian Empire. [174] The Persians and their allies made for Sestos, the strongest town in the region. [204] In Greece, the First Peloponnesian War between the power-blocs of Athens and Sparta, which had continued on/off since 460 BC, finally ended in 445 BC, with the agreement of a thirty-year truce. However, Xerxes' ambassadors deliberately avoided Athens and Sparta, hoping thereby that those states would not learn of the Persians' plans. Marathon: The first major battle of the Persian Wars was the battle of the Marathon which occurred in 490 B.C.The Greeks were not supported by the Spartans due to it being the time of a religious festival for the Spartans. What were the causes and effects of the Peloponnesian War? They banded together to form leagues, or groups of allies, for protection. The following year, the confederated Greeks went on the offensive, decisively defeating the Persian army at the Battle of Plataea, and ending the invasion of Greece by the Achaemenid Empire. The Persians most likely used their bows to wear down the enemy, then closed in to deliver the final blow with spears and swords. [187] With the Spartan withdrawal after Byzantium, the leadership of the Athenians became explicit. [164] After this the Persian force dissolved in rout; 40,000 troops managed to escape via the road to Thessaly,[165] but the rest fled to the Persian camp where they were trapped and slaughtered by the Greeks, finalising the Greek victory. The Persian king Darius the Great vowed to have revenge on Athens and Eretria for this act. Herodotus gives the names of 46 nations from which troops were drafted. The seeds for the wars was planted in 547 BCE when the Persian emperor, Cyrus the Great, conquered Greek Ionia. Exactly what happened is unclear; Thucydides gives few details, although later writers added plenty of lurid insinuations. Elsewhere in the empire, Cyrus identified elite native groups such as the priesthood of Judea – to help him rule his new subjects. This article covers the maximum extent of the wars. [95] Darius died while preparing to march on Egypt, and the throne of Persia passed to his son Xerxes I. Earlier, in 546 B.C.E., the Persians had conquered the wealthy Greek settlements in Ionia, a small coastal region bordering the Aegean Sea, in Asia Minor. It paused at Doriskos where it was joined by the fleet. After the Persians had loaded their cavalry (their strongest soldiers) on the ships, the 10,000 Athenian soldiers descended from the hills around the plain. Ancient Romans used aggressive methods to expand the boundaries of its territories. [142] Here the Allied fleet held off the Persians for three days; however, on the third evening the Allies received news of the fate of Leonidas and the Allied troops at Thermopylae. [117] Aristides, Themistocles's great rival, and champion of the zeugites (the 'upper hoplite-class') vigorously opposed such a policy. [136], Xerxes's estimated time of arrival at Thermopylae coincided with both the Olympic Games and the festival of Carneia. A further argument for the existence of the treaty is the sudden withdrawal of the Athenians from Cyprus in 449 BC, which Fine suggests makes most sense in the light of some kind of peace agreement. When the envoys came to Sardis and spoke as they had been bidden, Artaphrenes son of Hystaspes, viceroy of Sardis, asked them, "What men are you, and where dwell you, who desire alliance with the Persians?" Plutarch was writing some 600 years after the events in question, and is therefore a secondary source, but he often names his sources, which allows some degree of verification of his statements. answer choices . [169] Whilst many modern historians doubt that Mycale took place on the same day as Plataea, the battle may well only have occurred once the Allies received news of the events unfolding in Greece. In this way, they ensured that the Greeks remained distracted by internal conflicts, and were unable to turn their attentions to Persia. Nonetheless, the Ionian Revolt remains significant as the first major conflict between Greece and the Persian Empire, as well as the first phase of the Persian Wars. According to Thucydides, the official aim of the League was to "avenge the wrongs they suffered by ravaging the territory of the king". Other ancient authors agree with Herodotus' number of 1,207. In 1939, Greek archaeologist Spyridon Marinatos found the remains of numerous Persian arrowheads at the Kolonos Hill on the field of Thermopylae, which is now generally identified as the site of the defender's last stand. Correspondingly, who won the Greco Persian War? He received it from almost all of them, except Athens and Sparta, both of whom instead executed the ambassadors. Opinion amongst modern historians is also split; for instance, Fine accepts the concept of the Peace of Callias,[21] whereas Sealey effectively rejects it. [12], The military history of Greece between the end of the second Persian invasion of Greece and the Peloponnesian War (479–431 BC) is not well supported by surviving ancient sources. Nevertheless, the Athenians preferred to remain democratic despite the danger from Persia, and the ambassadors were disavowed and censured upon their return to Athens.[60]. Athens, and other Greek cities, sent aid, but were quickly forced to back down after defeat in 494 BCE. Key Points. For other uses, see, series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and poleis of the Hellenic world in the fifth century BC, Preliminary contacts between Persia and mainland Greece (507 BC), Early 480 BC: Thrace, Macedonia, and Thessaly, August 480 BC: Battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, June 479 BC: Battles of Plataea and Mycale. The resultant first Persian invasion of Greece consisted of two main campaigns. It is remembered because the underdog won, at least initially. [93] They arrived in time to prevent Artaphernes from securing a landing in Athens. [206] However, the growing enmity between Sparta and Athens would lead, just 14 years later, into the outbreak of the Second Peloponnesian War. [80][81] However, further progress in this campaign was prevented when Mardonius's fleet was wrecked in a storm off the coast of Mount Athos. One may also ask, what was the significant effect of the Greco Persian Wars? Victory over the allied Greek states at the famous Battle of Thermopylae allowed the Persians to torch an evacuated Athens and overrun most of Greece. [49] More experienced naval powers had by this time also begun to use a manoeuver known as diekplous. These works generally claim that the Persians could have launched no more than around 600 warships into the Aegean. [209] There was no open conflict between the Greeks and Persia until 396 BC, when the Spartan king Agesilaus briefly invaded Asia Minor; as Plutarch points out, the Greeks were far too busy overseeing the destruction of their own power to fight against the "barbarians". The Ionian Revolt. [199] This embassy included some Argive representatives and can probably be therefore dated to c. 461 BC (after an alliance was agreed between Athens and Argos). Sealey suggests that this was essentially a raid to gather as much treasure as possible from the Persian garrisons on Cyprus. [7] As historian Tom Holland has it, "For the first time, a chronicler set himself to trace the origins of a conflict not to a past so remote so as to be utterly fabulous, nor to the whims and wishes of some god, nor to a people's claim to manifest destiny, but rather explanations he could verify personally. [25], The Greeks of the classical period believed that, in the dark age that followed the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, significant numbers of Greeks fled and had emigrated to Asia Minor and settled there. [178] The party of Oeobazus was captured by a Thracian tribe, and Oeobazus was sacrificed to the god Plistorus. The heavy armour and longer spears made them superior in hand-to-hand combat and gave them significant protection against ranged attacks. Seeing his opportunity lost, Artaphernes ended the year's campaign and returned to Asia. [37] By 550 BC, the rebellion was over, and Cyrus had emerged victorious, founding the Achaemenid Empire in place of the Median kingdom in the process. 513 BCE. [189] In the early part of the next decade, Cimon began campaigning in Asia Minor, seeking to strengthen the Greek position there. For the Spartans, warfare during these periods was considered sacrilegious. Subsequently, the Persians suffered many defeats at … Just why Greece was coveted by Persia is unclear. [131], Having crossed into Europe in April 480 BC, the Persian army began its march to Greece, taking 3 months to travel unopposed from the Hellespont to Therme. Much of Diodorus's writing about this period is drawn from the much earlier Greek historian Ephorus, who also wrote a universal history. This would prove to be the source of much trouble for the Greeks and Persians alike. to be both just and fair. He wrote his 'Enquiries' (Greek Historia, English (The) Histories) around 440–430 BC, trying to trace the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars, which would still have been recent history. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. [137] The Allies proceeded to occupy the pass, rebuilt the wall the Phocians had built at the narrowest point of the pass, and waited for Xerxes's arrival. However, he found that the rest of the Allies were no longer prepared to accept Spartan leadership, and therefore returned home.[185]. The Delian League continued to campaign against Persia for the next three decades, beginning with the expulsion of the remaining Persian garrisons from Europe. Copyright 2020 FindAnyAnswer All rights reserved. [9] Plutarch criticised Herodotus in his essay "On The Malignity of Herodotus", describing Herodotus as "Philobarbaros" (barbarian-lover) for not being pro-Greek enough, which suggests that Herodotus might actually have done a reasonable job of being even-handed. [175] The Persian governor, Artayctes had not prepared for a siege, not believing that the Allies would attack. [195] This campaign marked the end of hostilities between the Delian League and Persia, and therefore the end of the Greco-Persian Wars. [57], In 507 BC, Artaphernes, as brother of Darius I and Satrap of Asia Minor in his capital Sardis, received an embassy from newly democratic Athens, probably sent by Cleisthenes, which was looking for Persian assistance in order to resist the threats from Sparta. This disagreement led to friction and eventually outright war. Even after Athens fell, the Allied fleet remained off the coast of Salamis, trying to lure the Persian fleet to battle. The final major existing source for the period is the universal history (Bibliotheca historica) of the 1st century BC Sicilian, Diodorus Siculus. strategy and support. Herodotus has often been dismissed as a 'story teller', by Aristotle himself amongst others, and this may be a piece of folklore to create a more engaging narrative. However, in 486 BC, his Egyptian subjects revolted, and the revolt forced an indefinite postponement of any Greek expedition. [40] Cyrus refused, citing the Ionians' unwillingness to help him previously. Shortly afterwards, they received the news that Xerxes had crossed the Hellespont. [ii] They thus formed a 'cultural league', to which they would admit no other cities, or even other tribal Ionians. [170], Mycale was, in many ways, the beginning of a new phase in the conflict, in which the Greeks would go on the offensive against the Persians. Past tyrants had also tended and needed to be strong and able leaders, whereas the rulers appointed by the Persians were simply place-men. In 498 BC, supported by troops from Athens and Eretria, the Ionians marched on, captured, and burnt Sardis. When Xerxes was eventually persuaded that the Allies intended to contest the pass, he sent his troops to attack. The Athenians eventually caught Artayctes, killing some of the Persians with him but taking most of them, including Artayctes, captive. The Greek fleet then sailed to Byzantium, which they besieged and eventually captured. [174] The siege dragged on for several months, causing some discontent amongst the Athenian troops,[177] but eventually, when the food ran out in the city, the Persians fled at night from the least guarded area of the city. [179] Artayctes was crucified at the request of the people of Elaeus, a town which Artayctes had plundered while governor of the Chersonesos. Furthermore, according to Darius's commands, the Persians enslaved all the remaining townspeople. From the Persian perspective, such terms would not be so humiliating as they might at first seem. Backed by Persian military might, these tyrants did not need the support of the population, and could thus rule absolutely. Under the so-called "King's Peace" that brought the war to an end, Artaxerxes II demanded and received the return of the cities of Asia Minor from the Spartans, in return for which the Persians threatened to make war on any Greek state that did not make peace. It is remembered in part because it pitted an underdog, Greece, against a massive empire, Persia. [120] Plutarch suggests that Themistocles deliberately avoided mentioning Persia, believing that it was too distant a threat for the Athenians to act on, but that countering Persia was the fleet's aim. [62][63] The mission was a debacle,[64] and sensing his imminent removal as tyrant, Aristagoras chose to incite the whole of Ionia into rebellion against the Persian king Darius the Great. In any case, it is impossible to determine with absolute certainty the legitimacy of Ephialtes' involvement in the battle. However, while en route to attack Athens, the Persian force was decisively defeated by the Athenians at the Battle of Marathon, ending Persian efforts for the time being. On the final day of the battle, the remaining Allies sallied forth from the wall to meet the Persians in the wider part of the pass to slaughter as many Persians as they could, but eventually they were all killed or captured. [211] After the failure of Cyrus, Persia tried to regain control of the Ionian city-states, which had rebelled during the conflict. Further, he suggests that Theopompus was actually referring to a treaty that had allegedly been negotiated with Persia in 423 BC. Furthermore, to prevent the Persians bypassing Thermopylae by sea, the Athenian and allied navies could block the straits of Artemisium. [46], Struggling to rule the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed local tyrants to rule each of them. [202] Fine argues that Callisthenes's denial that a treaty was made after the Eurymedon does not preclude a peace being made at another point. Herodotus, who has been called the "Father of History",[6] was born in 484 BC in Halicarnassus, Asia Minor (then part of the Persian empire). What were the main effects of the Persian and Peloponnesian wars? [91] Herodotus records that 6,400 Persian bodies were counted on the battlefield; the Athenians lost only 192 men. Persia, under the rule of Darius (r. 522-486 BCE), was already expanding into mainland Europe and had subjugated Ionia, Thrace, and Macedonia by the beginning of the 5th century BCE. [117] The Athenians were aware throughout this period that the Persian interest in Greece had not ended,[97] and Themistocles's naval policies may be seen in the light of the potential threat from Persia. According to Thucydides, this fleet sailed to Cyprus and "subdued most of the island". The Athenians were thus able to take possession of the city the next day. Indeed, becoming aware of the Persian preparations for the coming invasion, the Athenians voted to build more ships than those for which Themistocles had asked. [152] Seizing the opportunity, the Allied fleet attacked, and scored a decisive victory, sinking or capturing at least 200 Persian ships, therefore ensuring the safety of the Peloponnessus. [5] In 490 BC a second force was sent to Greece, this time across the Aegean Sea, under the command of Datis and Artaphernes. Battle of Salamis, (480 bc), battle in the Greco-Persian Wars in which a Greek fleet defeated much larger Persian naval forces in the straits at Salamis, between the island of … [41] He first attacked Phocaea; the Phocaeans decided to abandon their city entirely and sail into exile in Sicily, rather than become Persian subjects (although many later returned). [146], The Persians had now captured most of Greece, but Xerxes had perhaps not expected such defiance; his priority was now to complete the war as quickly as possible. [156] Mardonius moved to break the stalemate, by offering peace to the Athenians, using Alexander I of Macedon as an intermediate. [89], The Persian fleet next headed south down the coast of Attica, landing at the bay of Marathon, roughly 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Athens. [182] Certainly, the fact that the Delian League repeatedly campaigned in Cyprus suggests either that the island was not garrisoned by the Allies in 478 BC, or that the garrisons were quickly expelled. [119] Themistocles proposed that the silver should be used to build a new fleet of triremes, ostensibly to assist in a long running war with Aegina. [21] Diodorus is also a secondary source and often derided by modern historians for his style and inaccuracies, but he preserves many details of the ancient period found nowhere else. Following the Persian withdrawal from Europe and the Greek victory at Mycale, Macedon and the city-states of Ionia regained their independence. Asia Minor had been brought back into the Persian fold, but Darius had vowed to punish Athens and Eretria for their support for the revolt. [48][53] The 'hoplites' were foot soldiers usually drawn from the members of the middle-classes (in Athens called the zeugites), who could afford the equipment necessary to fight in this manner. The Greeks crushed the weaker Persian foot soldiers by routing the wings before turning towards the centre of the Persian line. [141], Simultaneous with the battle at Thermopylae, an Allied naval force of 271 triremes defended the Straits of Artemisium against the Persians, thus protecting the flank of the forces at Thermopylae. Sparta and Athens had a leading role in the congress but the interests of all the states influenced defensive strategy. The movie 300 is about the Spartans who fought at Thermopylae. Since the Allied fleet was badly damaged, and since it no longer needed to defend the flank of Thermopylae, the Allies retreated from Artemisium to the island of Salamis. leaders and support. [200] The ancient sources therefore disagree as to whether there was an official peace or not, and, if there was, when it was agreed. The violent actions of Spartan leader Pausanias at the siege of Byzantium, for instance, alienated many of the Greek states from Spart… Furthermore, Athens had already demonstrated their superiority at sea at the Eurymedon and Salamis-in-Cyprus, so any legal limitations for the Persian fleet were nothing more than "de jure" recognition of military realities. It is not clear what this was, but it probably involved sailing into gaps between enemy ships and then ramming them in the side. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This in turn allowed the Persian army to march unimpeded south all the way to Athens. [99], The Persians had the sympathy of several Greek city-states, including Argos, which had pledged to defect when the Persians reached their borders. No such group existed in Greek cities at this time; while there was usually an aristocracy, this was inevitably divided into feuding factions. [71] The Ionian fleet sought to defend Miletus by sea, but was defeated decisively at the Battle of Lade, after the Samians had defected. This alliance, now including many of the Aegean islands, was formally constituted as the The Persian Wars (sometimes known as the Greco-Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, beginning in 502 BCE and running some 50 years, until 449 BCE. [84], In 490 BC, Datis and Artaphernes (son of the satrap Artaphernes) were given command of an amphibious invasion force, and set sail from Cilicia. During the rebellion, one of the Persian capital cities, Sardis, was burned. "[7], Some later ancient historians, starting with Thucydides, criticized Herodotus and his methods. The Battle of Marathon was a decisive victory for the greatly outnumbered Greeks, and the legend of the messenger reporting the Greek victory is the source of the modern marathon race. What caused the Greek city- states to band together? [158] In response, the Spartans summoned a large army from the Peloponnese cities and marched to meet the Persians. They wore a leather jerkin,[47][50] although individuals of high status wore high-quality metal armor. before he could lauch another assault on Greece , so it was his son Xerxes that set out to complete his fathers ambition of conquering Greece. Xerxes decided that the Hellespont would be bridged to allow his army to cross to Europe, and that a canal should be dug across the isthmus of Mount Athos (a Persian fleet had been destroyed in 492 BC while rounding this coastline). The Persians thus settled for sponsoring a tyrant in each Ionian city, even though this drew them into the Ionians' internal conflicts. The tyrants themselves faced a difficult task; they had to deflect the worst of their fellow citizens' hatred, while staying in the favour of the Persians. The topic has been hotly debated, but the consensus revolves around the figure of 200,000. [21] Even during the 4th century BC, the idea of the treaty was controversial, and two authors from that period, Callisthenes and Theopompus, appear to reject its existence.[198]. This war was in response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait and was US-led with the backing of 34 other countries, the largest military alliance since World War II. [66] This campaign was the only offensive action taken by the Ionians, who subsequently went on the defensive. The members were given a choice of either supplying armed forces or paying a tax to the joint treasury; most states chose the tax. 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